The abstract (non-invasive brain surgery) is about researching solutions for the treatment of mental and psychiatric disorders, since 35% of the adult population would suffer. Depression, schizophrenia or bipolar behavior disorders are among others, but also strokes should be made treatable by this procedure.
It is about the stimulation or inhibition of neuronal connections and neurotransponders without an invasive intervention, which is associated with high risks and side effects.
The method is still in the research stage and has not yet been clinically tested.
With the ATAC (acoustically targeted chemogentetics), microscopic air bubbles are injected into the patient, which are distributed in the body via the bloodstream.
A transducer is then used to control regions in the brain with ultrasound waves, in which the so-called blood-brain barrier is opened. The blood-brain barrier normally ensures that multi-part molecules cannot reach the neuroreceptors in the brain, as pathogens would otherwise easily penetrate. Depending on the brain region and the cell structure associated with it, the ultrasound waves are output in different frequency ranges. These make the air bubbles move and "massage" the blood-brain barrier, so to speak. After this has been done, genes are injected into the patient, which can then bind to the neuroreceptors and stimulate or inhibit brain regions.
This is the actual operation. The genes are crucial for the treatment and are structured differently from disease to disease. In an attempt to erase the memories of a mouse over a certain period of time, AAV9 genes which hM4Di-mCherry were used by CaMKIIa promoters were used. The amount of CNO (substance with the genes) is 1 mg per kg body weight of a vertebrate.
In the final concept I tried to concentrate my experiences gained from the physical and digital models and shape concepts and to apply them to my product. All aspects previously defined were important to me, such as the simple and precise effect, the comfortable but medical fit and a tighter appearance. My product is the future of brain surgery and it should look the same.